Preparing an Initial Submission

Please read this section before preparing your manuscript file. This section contains full instructions to help you prepare and format your initial submission, including the main text, figures and tables, references, supplementary files and other important items.

Topics covered in this section:

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Submission templates

We recommend preparing your manuscript file in one of our submission templates. Each template explains how to structure the article and includes all the metadata required for your submission. Templates are available for:

* Note that DATA ARTICLE | SHORT and METHOD ARTICLE | SHORT manuscripts must be prepared using the template provided.



Manuscript structure

The manuscript should be supplied as a single file (.pdf, .doc or .docx). Text should be in a single column, 1.5 line spacing and pages and lines numbered. This file should contain a title page, abstract, main text, acknowledgements, additional information, references, figures, tables and captions.

Each of these items are described in more detail, below.


Title page

Include the article title, author name(s) and their affiliations and addresses, email address for the corresponding author, five keywords and the abstract. The title should be concise and convey a sense of the study outcome. For example, use a declarative style that states or points towards the main conclusion or outcome of your study, rather than the broad topic of interest. For example:

Topic-based title: “Titanite precipitation in Paleogene sandstones from a volcanic terrane, East Greenland”

Declarative title: “U-Pb dating identifies titanite precipitation in Paleogene sandstones from a volcanic terrane, East Greenland”

Keywords should be in alphabetical order.



The abstract should provide brief context for the study, a clearly formulated research question and aim(s) and a summary of the key results and conclusions reached. Avoid subject-specific terminology and acronyms and write for a broadly scientific audience. Do not use citations in the abstract.

The maximum word limit for abstracts varies according to the article type:

  • Short-format articles: 100–200 words
  • Regular articles: 150–300 words
  • MONOGRAPHS and MAP DESCRIPTIONS: 200–500 words


Main text

All manuscripts should follow a logical structure. Here, we describe the standard structure for a RESEARCH ARTICLE and RESEARCH ARTICLE | SHORT. Other article types may require a different structure as described in the submission template.



The introduction should provide context to understanding the rationale of the study and define the research question that the study aims to address. Ideally, the research question should appear in the opening sentences of the article. The rest of the introduction should expand upon this background information and close with concise, clearly formulated aims and objectives. To maintain a good structure, make sure that the aims and objectives are listed in the same order in which they are later addressed in the paper. Both the abstract and the introduction should be written, such that a reader from any geoscience field might understand. An effective introduction avoids subject-specific terminology, but where it is necessary such terms should always be defined.


Materials and methods

Document the materials used and describe all methods such that (1) a reader understands how all data were collected and analysed and (2) a qualified person might replicate them. In short-format articles the methodology can be provided as a supplementary file, or if there is space, authors can include a summary in the main text with a more detailed methodology supplied as supplementary information. Standard methods need not be described in full if suitable references are cited. Otherwise, document all field methods and sample collection procedures, software, laboratory analyses (including the make and model of analytical equipment) and statistical treatments of data.


Results and discussions

The manuscript must include a description of the results followed by a discussion of the main trends depicted in the data presented. These can be described in a single combined section or, preferably, in two separate sections. Cite (and describe) each figure or table in the same order in which they are numbered. Avoid vague descriptions of data as “high” or “low”, without citing examples.

Don’t write: “Pb values are high in the top 20 cm of soil. Lower values are observed in deeper soils.”

Do write: “Pb values are elevated in the top 20 cm of soil (>225 ppm). Lower values are observed below 5 m depth (<100 ppm).”

Where relevant include uncertainties or a suitable statistical measure of the likely spread of values observed in the data.


Conclusions or summary

Ideally, the conclusions or summary section should not simply repeat text already presented in the manuscript. Rather, it should build upon the main outcomes of the study and set the results in a broader context of the overarching field. For example, state how the results have addressed the research question and how they may contribute to advancing knowledge in the field. You may consider closing the manuscript with a brief statement on the next steps for future research.



Contributions that do not meet the authorship criteria might be better recognised in an acknowledgement. Authors might wish to thank colleagues for their technical, analytical or field assistance. We recommend that authors seek permission from so-named individuals, since their acknowledgement might imply that they endorse the work.

It is also common practice to thank reviewers for their comments, which often help to develop the manuscript for publication. Acknowledgements should be brief and concise, avoiding personal sentiments and superlative language.


Additional information

Funding statement: All sources of financial support for the study (or parts of the study) must be acknowledged, including grants, or funds from private companies or the authors’ host institutions. Include the grant number where available. Example formats include:

“This study was supported by [insert funder name], grant number [insert grant number].”

“Fieldwork was funded by [insert institution/company name].”

“Analyses were paid for by [insert funding body and grant number if relevant].”


Author contributions: All submissions to GEUS Bulletin should include a brief statement of  who contributed to the work and in what capacity. State the initials of each author followed by their contribution.

We recommend using the CRediT Contributor Roles Taxonomy. Choose only the roles that apply to each author.

Example format, where “KS” and “DJR” are the initials of two co-authors:

“KS and DJR: Conceptualization, writing – original draft, writing – review & editing; KS: Formal Analysis, Methodology; DJR: Supervision.”


Competing interests: Authors are required to declare any actual or perceived competing interests. For example, where the authors have a competing financial interest that may be perceived to impact the publication of the work.

Example formats:

“The authors declare no competing interests”

“KS and DJR are consultants for the company who funded the work.”


Additional files: Here, authors can include DOI links to a data repository where data produced as part of the study are hosted. If supplementary files were included in the submission, they should be listed here.

Example formats:

“Data produced as part of this study are available for download/purchase at [insert data repository url or DOI where the data can be accessed].”

“Six supplementary files were submitted with this manuscript.”

Note that supplementary files should be accompanied by a “readme” file, containing a list of file names and a short description of each file.


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Manuscript length

Short-format articles are limited to 3000 words and 4 mid-sized display items, which corresponds to c. 6 pages of typeset manuscript. This word limit includes the main text, acknowledgements, additional information, references, acknowledgements and captions. It does not include the title, authorship list, author affiliations, keywords or abstract.

Regular research articles are not limited to a specific number of words or display items. However, they generally do not exceed c. 30 pages of typeset manuscript.

For guidance, one typeset page of unbroken text or a full-size display item typically corresponds to c. 800 words. A mid-sized display item corresponds to half a page or c. 400 words. A small figure corresponds to a quarter of a page or c. 200 words.

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Display items (figures and tables)

Figures and tables are supplied as part of the manuscript file at the size intended for publication.

Note that in a MONOGRAPH and MAP DESCRIPTION, figures and tables can be supplied separate to the main text. See the submission templates for these formats for more information.


For the initial submission, figures should be provided at a resolution that allows the editors and reviewers to assess the data fully.

Authors do not need to submit final, publication-quality display items at this stage. However, following these brief guidelines when preparing figures will aid the review and production process:

  1. Prepare all figures to at least 300 dpi resolution, including all component parts of an image where, for example, multiple photos are combined into a single figure.
  2. If the software gives the option, choose RGB colour space.
  3. Prepare figures to the size intended for publication. GEUS Bulletin standard widths are 82 mm (one column) and 171 mm (two columns). We can also accommodate 1.5 columns (112 mm). The recommended maximum figure height is 220 mm to allow room for a short caption. Page height is 235 mm.
  4. At these sizes, use a minimum font size 5pt, maximum size 9pt, in a widely available sans serif font such as Helvetica or Arial.
  5. Use the same font for all figures.
  6. Provide a scale (metric) and geographic information (latitude and longitude), where relevant. Generally, all maps should have coordinates. Where possible we encourage submission of geo-referenced maps as supplementary files.
  7. Clearly define all symbols, shading, lines or other features in a legend or caption.
  8. Use upper-case or lower-case letters to identify each panel in a composite figure.

Further instructions are provided in our infographic guide to preparing display items.

Questions about the preparation of display items and file formats can be sent to



Tables should be included in the manuscript file. In accepted manuscripts, tables will be formatted during the production stage. However, authors can aid the review and production process by adhering to the following guidelines:

  1. Prepare tables to the size intended for publication. GEUS Bulletin standard widths are 82 mm (one column) and 171 mm (two columns). The recommended maximum table height is 220 mm to leave room for caption and footnotes. Page height is 235 mm.
  2. At these sizes, use a minimum font size 7pt, maximum size 9pt, in a widely available sans serif font such as Helvetica or Arial.
  3. Always prepare tables in portrait over landscape format where possible.
  4. Each table has a short title. Table number written as “Table 1.”
  5. Use footnotes below the table to define all symbols, abbreviations or data sources. Footnotes can be labelled “a, b, c etc"(lowercase, superscript) or "1, 2, 3 etc” (superscript).

Further instructions are provided in our infographic guide to preparing display items (link coming soon).



Figure and table captions should be listed at the end of the manuscript or provided alongside each figure or table where they appear in the manuscript. Captions should be concise and should not duplicate the main text. They should provide enough detail such that the figure can be understood separate to the main text. But they should not contain lengthy descriptions of the results, discussions or methodology

For multiple-panel figures, the first sentence of the caption should provide a short statement to summarise the entire figure, followed by an explanation of the individual panels. All symbols, abbreviations, shading, lines or other features should be defined in either the caption or a legend.

The word ‘Figure’ is abbreviated to ‘Fig.’ at the beginning of the caption (E.g. “Fig. 1  This is a caption.”).

Photo credits are in the form “Photo: Poul Davidson” with a year if relevant. No credit is needed for photographs taken by a co-author.

Provide credit for figures reproduced wholly or partially from elsewhere as follows:

  1. “Reproduced with permission from Svennevig (2019).” I.e. the figure is an exact copy of the original and permission has been granted for reproduction.
  2. “Slightly modified from Svennevig (2019).” I.e. minor changes to the original figure.
  3. “Modified from Svennevig (2019).” I.e. significant changes.
  4. “Based on Svennevig (2019).” I.e. totally re‐designed but elements or ideas from the original are still present.

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Citations and reference styles

Authors do not need to use the GEUS Bulletin style for in-text citations of references, display items (figures, tables) and supplementary files, or in the full list of references at the end of the manuscript. All accepted manuscripts will be formatted by the editorial team prior to publication. Authors need only be consistent with the style of citations and reference formatting used.

The GEUS Bulletin styles are described here for authors who wish to adopt them in their submission.

Download the full reference stylesheet (PDF).


Citing figures, tables and supplementary files

Number all display items (figures and tables) and supplementary files in the order in which they are cited in the main text.

The GEUS Bulletin style for in-text citations of display items is as follows: ‘Fig. 1’, ‘Figs 1A–C’ and ‘Table 1’. Citation of display items from other papers are ‘fig. 1’, ‘table 1’. Where a figure is cited at the beginning of a new sentence, it is not abbreviated, i.e. 'Figure 1.'

Supplementary files are named and cited as “supplementary file S1, S2” etc.


Citing references

The GEUS Bulletin style for in-text citations of references is as follows:

  1. For one author, cite the name and year of publication: (Hansen 2019) or Hansen (2019).
  2. For two authors, use an ampersand (&) between names: (Hansen & Jensen 1996) or Hansen & Jensen (1996).
  3. For three or more authors, cite the first author’s name followed by et al. in italics: (Fausto et al. 2018) or Fausto et al. (2018)
  4. Lists of papers by different authors are separated by a semicolon (Hansen 1996; Andersen 1999; Børgesen 2000) and cited chronologically.
  5. Two or more papers by the same author(s) are separated by commas (Hansen 2015, 2018, 2019).

Unpublished reports and repository-hosted pre-prints (with a DOI) may be cited. Papers marked as ‘in press’ (i.e. papers that have been accepted) may be cited if a version of record is available online with a DOI.

Personal communications (verbal and written, including manuscripts that are submitted or in preparation) are given with initials and year e.g. (P. Japsen, personal communication 2021). Another form is: (P. Japsen, unpublished data 2021). A published paper, book or conference abstract is always a preferred source.


Reference style

All citations that appear in the main text, figures, tables and captions must have a corresponding reference in the references section.

References will be formatted during production, but it is the author’s responsibility to check that all references are correct and provided in full.

Always include a DOI where available. Use the CrossRef Metadata Search to find DOIs before submitting your manuscript. DOIs are provided in the format

If you supply a URL, please include the month and year that the resource was accessed at that URL.

The GEUS Bulletin style is as follows:

  1. List references alphabetically by (1) first author’s surname and (2) by second author’s surname, then chronologically.
  2. Ten or more authors or three or more editors are shortened to the first listed name and initial followed by “et al.”.
  3. Use the full journal title and book publisher name. For website citations include the date (month and year) the site was accessed. Datasets should include a DOI or URL to the dataset online.
  4. No comma between author name(s) and year, and no space between author initials, but with a point.
  5. If using a reference software tool, we recommend exporting references in APA or Chicago style and amend to our inhouse format using the examples below.


Common referencing examples:

Abstract: Kjeldsen, K.K., Khan, S.A., Colgan, W.T. & Fausto, R.S. 2018: Improving mass balance estimates of large outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet. Washington D.C., USA, 4–10 December, 2018. AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.

Article: Szynkiewicz, A., Olichwer, T. & Tarka, R. 2020: Delineation of groundwater provenance in Arctic environment using isotopic compositions of water and sulphate. Journal of Hydrology 580, 124232.

Article/chapter in book: Thurston, P.C. & Chivers, K.M. 1990: Secular variation in greenstone sequence development emphasizing Superior Province, Canada. In: Gaal, G. & Groves, D.I. (eds): Precambrian ore deposits related to tectonics. Precambrian Research 46, 21–58.

Book: Masaitis, V. L. & Naumov, M. V. (eds.). 2020: The Puchezh-Katunki Impact Crater. Impact Studies. 213 pp. Springer International Publishing.

Computer programme: R Core Team. 2017: R. A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.

Data set: Porter, C. et al. 2018: ArcticDEM V2, Harvard Dataverse.

Map: Pedersen, A.K., Larsen, L.M., Pedersen, G.K. & Dueholm, K.S. 2008: Geological map of the area around Sikillingi, western Nuussuaq, central West Greenland, 1:20 000. Copenhagen: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland.

Download more reference style examples (PDF).

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Supplementary information and data

Authors can include supplementary files as part of their submission. For example:

  • In short articles, methods can be described in a supplementary file.
  • In all articles, information that is of a technical nature, but not crucial to the main line of argument might be best presented in supplementary files.
  • Data or code produced or used in the study can be included in supplementary files.

These files will be made available to the reviewers, who may suggest changes. Supplementary files are not typeset or copy-edited during production, so authors should take care to submit files that are spell checked and generally understandable.

When submitting supplementary files authors are asked to include a 'readme' file that lists the name of each file and briefly states their contents. In accepted articles, supplementary files are uploaded to the GEUS Bulletin data repository (Dataverse), where they receive a DOI. This DOI is included in the published article.

Alternatively, authors can supply a DOI to a related data set or code hosted in another, public data repository.

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Use UK English. Refer to this glossary (PDF) for recommended spellings and usage according to the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), including geographical divisions and place names in Greenland and Denmark.

The abstract and introduction should be understandable to a scientist from any geoscience background. So far as possible, avoid using subject specific terminology in these sections. Else, define such terminology where appropriate.

We encourage authors to use active phrasing where possible, or a mix of passive and active phrasing. Active phrasing is especially useful to differentiate between activities carried out in the current study vs. activities completed in the past by other authors. For example, “we collected 71 samples from Disko, west Greenland” is a much clearer statement than “71 samples were collected from Disko, west Greenland”. Only in the former example is it clear who collected the samples and that they were collected as part of the current study. Depending on the context, the latter example could be confusing.

Avoid long sentences, with multiple clauses, which run for three or more lines in the manuscript.

Authors should ask a colleague whose written English is of an excellent standard to read their manuscript before submission.

A few things to note:

Abbreviations and italics. Latin words and some abbreviations are given in italics, for example c., et al., in situ, sensu lato, while others, such as cf., e.g., i.e., viz., are not.

Units of measure, symbols, letters etc. GEUS Bulletin uses the SI system (Système International) of units. For example, G (giga), M (mega), k (kilo), d (deci), m (milli), (micro), n (nanno), Ga (gigayear), Ma (megayear), km (kilometre), mm (millimetre) etc. Imperial units (feet etc.) may be retained for older subsurface data/samples.

Paleo vs. Palaeo. Either are accepted within a single manuscript, but not both.

Related information is available in the page: Other formatting considerations

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It is the authors’ responsibility to obtain permission to use published copyrighted material, and to state the licence and permission in the main text or caption. It is the authors' responsibility to ensure that the manuscript does not contain any confidential information.

In submitting to GEUS Bulletin, the authors agree to the conditions laid out in the journal’s policies on open access, copyright and licensing and intellectual property.


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Plagiarism and intellectual property

GEUS Bulletin considers the following to constitute plagiarism, as defined by the Council of Science Editors (CSE):

“[T]he unauthorized use or close imitation of the language (figures images or tables) and thoughts of others and the representation of them as one’s own original work without permission or acknowledgment by the author of the source of these materials.”

We consider self-plagiarism to fall within this category, i.e. where researchers re-use their own text or duplicate their own previously published reports without acknowledgment. This, is sometimes called text recycling, duplicate or redundant publication.

Submissions to GEUS Bulletin must not engage in plagiarism or self-plagiarism (text recycling, duplicate or redundant publication). Please read our full policy on intellectual property for further information.

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