GEUS Bulletin is a peer-reviewed, open access journal published by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS). We publish geoscience research papers, monographs and map descriptions for Denmark, Greenland and the Arctic region. GEUS Bulletin believes that open science benefits scientists, industry and society. We do not charge publication fees and all our articles can be freely downloaded online.
Denudation history and landscape development in East Greenland: Part OneVol. 45 No. 1 (2021)
Review of Survey activities 2018Vol. 43 (2019)
Petroleum geology of the Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous of East and North-East Greenland: Blokelv-1 borehole, Jameson Land BasinVol. 42 (2018)
Editors: Jon R. Ineson and Jørgen A. Bojesen-Koefoed
The exposed Jurassic succession in East and North-East Greenland has long been presented as an analogue for equivalent deeply buried strata on the Norwegian conjugate shelf and offshore North-East Greenland. In particular, the Upper Jurassic marine mudstone succession is often ascribed source-rock potential as proven from coeval rocks on the Northwest European margin. Previous outcrop investigations have not convincingly confirmed this potential, however, and three boreholes were drilled between 2008 and 2010 to provide full coverage of the Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous petroleum source-rock succession in eastern Greenland. The Blokelv-1 borehole was drilled in 2008 in central Jameson Land to investigate the Middle Oxfordian – Lower Volgian Hareelv Formation, representing the lowermost part of the composite source-rock succession.
The common aim of the collection of eight scientific papers in this bulletin, introduced by an account of the technical and logistic challenges of the drilling operation, is to document the significance of the Hareelv Formation in a petroleum geological context. Papers on the biostratigraphy, sedimentology, provenance and diagenesis establish the framework and geological history of the succession while companion papers on the source-rock potential, burial and exhumation history and igneous intrusive activity in the region contribute to an improved understanding of the petroleum geology of the Jameson Land Basin.
Review of Survey activities 2017Vol. 41 (2018)
Editors Adam A. Garde, Ole Bennike and W. Stuart Watt
The 22 contributions in this issue of Review of Survey activities demonstrate the broad field of activities performed by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland and external partners.
Seven papers on Danish geology comprise an investigation of reservoir sandstones for oil and gas production in the Danish Central Graben, an evaluation of alternative depository sites for unwanted brine in a commercial gas storage facility, and a study of alum shale nanoporosity, which provides new insight into the Danish shale gas play. Till deposits are addressed in a paper on chalk-glacitectonite and in an example of using ground-penetrating radar for a structural study. Two offshore articles describe Neogene oil-bearing diatom ooze in the North Sea and a large area of unusual, inclined bedding in Skagerrak.
In Greenland, four papers deal with remote sensing in geological mapping, describing advanced methodology and results of photogrammetry and hyperspectral mapping from mobile platforms such as helicopters and boats, and a fifth paper discusses the need for systematic updates of Survey maps as new data are acquired. A new geophysical map offshore West Greenland is also presented and geochemical data from sedimentary rocks in North Greenland are used to discuss potential mineralisation processes related to the world-scale zinc deposit at Citronen Fjord. The ongoing monitoring of the Greenland ice sheet is addressed in four contributions, including the newly established radioactive waste study at Camp Century and a reconstruction of past sea-ice extent off eastern Greenland back to the 19th century. Besides, records of European whaling and trading in the 17th–19th centuries are used to discuss past climate variations in West Greenland.
The issue also contains an evaluation of future use of and demand for rare-earth elements in wind turbines, a study of laser ablation techniques in the analysis of fish otoliths for fish stock monitoring, and an account of current activities to maintain and expand a common geological database for the European Union.
Lithostratigraphy, geology and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks of the Maligât Formation and associated intrusions on Disko and Nuussuaq, Paleocene of West GreenlandVol. 40 (2018)
Asger Ken Pedersen, Lotte Melchior Larsen and Gunver Krarup Pedersen
The upper Cretaceous–Tertiary Nuussuaq Basin in West Greenland contains a many kilometres thick succession of siliciclastic sediments and overlying volcanic rocks. The first studies in the early 19th century were centred on the coal and fossils in the sediments and the minerals in the volcanic rocks, including famous occurrences of native iron. The present focus of interest includes modern stratigraphic and volcanological studies to decipher the basin evolution and support hydrocarbon and mineral exploration.
This bulletin presents the lithostratigraphy, geology and geochemistry of the Paleocene volcanic rocks of the Maligât Formation and its related intrusions on Disko and the Nuussuaq peninsula; it concludes with a detailed discussion of the effects of crustal contamination processes. The Maligât Formation is up to 2000 m thick and comprises four formally defined members and 15 chemically defined informal units. It is mainly composed of basalt lavas but also includes basaltic andesite, andesite and dacite flows and rhyolite tuffs. The silicic rocks and intrusions were produced by contamination in high-level magma chambers and commonly contain native iron.
The comprehensive descriptions and analyses of each member and unit represent a synthesis of many years of work and are intended to serve as a guide for future studies, including exploration for mineral deposits associated with some units of the formation.
A companion bulletin (volume 39) on the volcanic rocks of the picritic Vaigat Formation that underlies the Maligât Formation was published in 2017.
Lithostratigraphy, geology and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks of the Vaigat Formation on Disko and Nuussuaq, Paleocene of West GreenlandVol. 39 (2017)
Asger Ken Pedersen, Lotte Melchior Larsen and Gunver Krarup Pedersen
The upper Cretaceous–Tertiary Nuussuaq Basin in West Greenland contains a many kilometres thick succession of siliciclastic sediments and overlying volcanic rocks. The first studies in the early 19th century centred on the coal and fossils in the sediments and the minerals in the volcanic rocks, including famous occurrences of native iron. The present focus of interest includes modern stratigraphic and volcanological studies to decipher the basin evolution and support hydrocarbon exploration.
The Nuussuaq Basin is the only onshore analogue for the sedimentary and volcanic basins offshore West Greenland primarily known from seismic data. The excellently exposed volcanic rocks, in particular giant foreset-bedded hyaloclastite deposits, are of a size comparable to seismic sections and therefore directly applicable to their interpretation.
This bulletin presents the lithostratigraphy, geology and geochemistry of the Paleocene volcanic rocks of the Vaigat Formation on Disko and the major part of the Nuussuaq peninsula. The Vaigat Formation in this area is up to 1600 m thick and composed mainly of olivine-rich picrites, with ten formally defined members and 20 informal units. The comprehensive descriptions and analyses of each member and unit represent a synthesis of many years of work and are intended to serve as a guide for future studies, including exploration for mineral deposits associated with some units of the formation.
A companion bulletin on the volcanic rocks of the Maligât Formation overlying the Vaigat Formation was published in 2018.
Review of Survey activities 2016Vol. 38 (2017)
Editors Adam A. Garde and Ole Bennike
The 17 contributions in this Review of Survey activities reflect the wide range of activities currently performed by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, commonly in collaboration with external partners.
Topics in and around Denmark include the important Danish potential for geothermal energy, a shale gas study, securing seismic exploration data from the North Sea for the public, new information on Cretaceous–Palaeogene chalk and limestone, the importance of GEUS’ Jupiter database for the national monitoring of groundwater resources, study of nitrate runoff into streams from agricultural fields, as well as high-precision mapping of contaminated landfill sites and location of sinkholes using digital elevation maps.
Activities in Greenland are represented by a study of potential gold mineralisation sites in South-East Greenland using advanced statistical methods, delineation of potential petroleum reservoirs in the Nuussuaq Basin using modern hand-held photogrammetry and geophysical logging, and monitoring of the Greenland ice sheet including a new study around Camp Century. A final historical paper celebrates the pioneer Danish geophysicist Inge Lehmann and discusses political issues in connection with the installation of the first seismographs in Denmark and Greenland.
Biostratigraphic correlation of the western and eastern margins of the Labrador–Baffin Seaway and implications for the regional geologyVol. 37 (2017)
Henrik Nøhr-Hansen, Graham L. Williams & Robert A. Fensome
The Labrador–Baffin Seaway between Canada and Greenland is a key element in understanding the tectonic evolution of the North Atlantic region during late Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. The sedimentary rocks forming the continental margins on either side of this seaway represent a vast data source documenting the evolution of the region from the initial continental rifting to the formation of a strait linking the Atlantic and Arctic oceans. This sedimentary archive is important both for charting the geotectonic history and assessing the resource potential of the area. The study presented in Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletins 36 and 37 is a major contribution to our understanding of the development of the Labrador–Baffin Seaway. It is based on new palynological analysis of samples from 13 offshore wells on the Canadian Margin and six wells from the Greenland Margin, and is the first comprehensive study to present an integrated, consistent and fully documented biostratigraphic correlation across both continental margins.
This bulletin presents the palynostratigraphic framework that permits detailed correlation between the Canadian and Greenland continental margins; palynological-event charts are provided for the 19 offshore wells. The focus is on the stratigraphic evolution of the margins, particularly with respect to major unconformities that form the basis for published sequence and seismic stratigraphic schemes. The palynological data also contribute to our understanding of the significant environmental and climatic changes that occurred in the region from Early Cretaceous to late Neogene times.
Cretaceous and Cenozoic dinoflagellate cysts and other palynomorphs from the western and eastern margins of the Labrador–Baffin SeawayVol. 36 (2016)
Robert A. Fensome, Henrik Nøhr-Hansen & Graham L. Williams
The Labrador–Baffin Seaway between Canada and Greenland is a key element in understanding the tectonic evolution of the North Atlantic region during late Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. The sedimentary rocks forming the continental margins on either side of this seaway represent a vast data source documenting the evolution of the region from the initial continental rifting to the formation of a strait linking the Atlantic and Arctic oceans. This sedimentary archive is important both for charting the geotectonic history and assessing the resource potential of the area. The study presented in Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletins 36 and 37 is a major contribution to our understanding of the development of the Labrador–Baffin Seaway. It is based on new palynological analysis of samples from 13 offshore wells on the Canadian margin and six wells from the Greenland margin, and is the first comprehensive study to present an integrated, consistent and fully documented biostratigraphic correlation across both continental margins.
This bulletin presents the formal taxonomy of the palynological record with illustrations of most taxa described herein. The systematic descriptions focus particularly on the dinoflagellate cysts: three new and five emended genera, 16 new species and six new combinations of species are proposed. A new acritarch species and a new miospore species are also described. This taxonomic documentation of the microflora forms the foundation both for detailed correlation across the Labrador–Baffin Seaway and for interpretation of changing environments and climatic conditions from Early Cretaceous to late Neogene times.
Review of Survey activities 2015Vol. 35 (2016)
Editors Adam A. Garde, Ole Bennike, Kristine Thrane and W. Stuart Watt
This issue of Review of Survey Activities presents a selection of 24 papers reflecting the wide spectrum of current activities of the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, from the microscopic to the plate-tectonic level.
The Survey’s activities in Denmark are illustrated by 11 papers covering widely different subjects including groundwater management, pesticide monitoring, 3D urban geology, the regional Danish potential for geothermal energy, Palaeozoic stratigraphy from borehole logs, enhancement of oil production by injection of ‘smart’ water and glacial geology.
Activities in Greenland are illustrated by eight papers on Precambrian crustal evolution and mineralisation processes in South-East and northern West Greenland, fundamental magma processes in the Skaergaard intrusion, onshore and offshore seismological studies, and on long-term monitoring of the Greenland ice sheet and sea-ice variability.
International studies by the Survey are represented by two papers describing a large Nordic CO2-storage project and a pilot study of burial and exhumation along the eastern passive margin of Labrador and Newfoundland using apatite fission track analysis.
Finally, three papers describe new developments in the digital access to, and handling of Greenland-related geodata and presentation of a new smartphone- and tablet-based app for effective handling of geological and sample data during field work.
The ammonites of the Middle Jurassic Cranocephalites beds of East GreenlandVol. 34 (2015)
John H. Callomon, Peter Alsen & Finn Surlyk
The Mesozoic sedimentary succession of eastern Greenland is renowned for its Boreal Jurassic ammonite record. The marine Middle Jurassic deposits of the Jameson Land Basin in central East Greenland are particularly rich in ammonites and have been the subject of much detailed taxonomic and stratigraphic study since the first collections at the beginning of the 20th century. Over the last fifty years, much of the work on the Middle Jurassic ammonite faunas has been undertaken by John H. Callomon, working initially under Lauge Koch’s last expeditions and subsequently with the University of Copenhagen and the Geological Survey of Greenland (GGU, now GEUS).
This bulletin presents the culmination of these endeavours, published after John H. Callomon’s death. It focusses on the so-called Cranocephalites beds of the Ugleelv area of Jameson Land where a detailed ammonite stratigraphy comprising thirty-four faunal horizons is established for the Borealis, Indistinctus and Pompeckji Standard Zones. The Pompeckji Zone is subdivided into four new subzones and four new species are described. This detailed taxonomic and stratigraphic analysis confirms the status of the Jameson Land succession as the key Boreal reference section for this time interval, and furthermore allows a high-resolution study of the evolution of the ammonites which on this time-scale appears to be continuous.
Review of Survey activities 2014Vol. 33 (2015)
Editors Ole Bennike, Adam A. Garde and W. Stuart Watt
This Review of Survey activities presents a selection of 20 papers reflecting the wide spectrum of activities of the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, from the microscopic to the plate-tectonic level.
The Survey’s activities in Denmark are illustrated by eight articles covering Palaeozoic stratigraphy, permeability of North Sea chalk, Quaternary geology, seismology, groundwater geology and an assessment of mineral raw materials.
Activities in Greenland and the Faroe Islands are also covered by eight papers. One deals with the completed Continental Shelf Project, three with mineral resources and exploration and three papers describe the Survey’s monitoring of the Greenland ice sheet. One paper deals with applied glaciology in Kyrgyzstan, Greenland and Canada.
The Survey’s international activities are the subject of three papers: two dealing with fingerprinting of heavy minerals in Labrador and Brazil and one dealing with carbon dioxide capture and storage in Europe.
Finally, one paper describes a new method to develop digital models, e.g. for geological outcrops, based on images taken with a handheld camera.
A catalogue of Danian gastropods from the Baunekule facies, Faxe Formation, DenmarkVol. 32 (2014)
Bodil W. Lauridsen and K.I. Schnetler
Fossiliferous middle Danian limestones of the Faxe Formation, exposed in a large quarry on the Stevns peninsula, eastern Denmark, yield a detailed record of the complex ecosystem associated with cold-water coral mounds. A particular sedimentary–diagenetic facies, the Baunekule facies, preserves the faunal record in exceptional detail.
This bulletin presents a catalogue of the gastropod fauna from the Baunekule facies, providing the taxonomic status of 194 taxa; one new species (Zaclys? nuetzeli) is introduced. The catalogue is fully illustrated with a combination of detailed drawings and photographs, the former produced in the 1960s by Erna Nordmann, Gunni Jørgensen and Betty Engholm under the direction of Professor Alfred Rosenkrantz. The bulletin documents the high diversity of the gastropod fauna and the overwhelming dominance of small (millimetre-sized) carnivorous forms that browsed on the coral substrate. Over 80% of this unusual fauna may be endemic to the Faxe Formation, probably reflecting the specialised nature of the cold-water coral mound ecosystem.
Review of Survey activities 2013Vol. 31 (2014)
Edited by Ole Bennike, Adam A. Garde and W. Stuart Watt
This Review of Survey activities presents a selection of 22 papers reflecting the wide spectrum of activities of the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, from the microscopic to the plate-tectonic level.
The Survey's activities in Denmark and surrounding areas are illustrated by 11 articles covering mapping of fractures in Precambrian rocks, shale gas investigations, chalk architecture, a new technique for CO2-flooding experiments of chalk, Cretaceous and Palaeogene biostratigraphy, groundwater geology, Quaternary geology, stormwater management and geothermal energy.
Activities in Greenland are covered by nine papers, four of which deal with mineral and petroleum exploration. One paper deals with seismology, three papers describe the Survey's monitoring of the Greenland ice sheet and one paper deals with long-term changes of the Upernavik Isstrøm.
The Survey's activities in the new Center for Minerals and Materials (MiMa) are the subject of one paper, and finally on the occasion of its 125th anniversary in 2013, the Survey's history is briefly described.