Inventory of onshore petroleum seeps and stains in Greenland: a web-based GIS model

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.34194/geusb.v47.6519

Keywords:

Petroleum seeps and stains, solid bitumens, organic geochemistry, petroleum and minerals systems, Greenland

Abstract

A new inventory on onshore petroleum seeps and stains in Greenland has been released by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland as a web-based GIS model on the Greenland Mineral Resources Portal: Petroleum Seeps and Stains in Greenland. Knowledge on oil and gas seeps, oil stains and solid bitumen occurrences provides key information on mineral and petroleum systems, especially in frontier basins. As the understanding of recent and previous migrations of fluids and gases is important for both mineral and petroleum explorations in Greenland, this new inventory has been developed to facilitate exploration and new activities. The classification includes the following types of occurrences: (1) oil seeps, (2) gas seeps, (3) mud diapirs, pingos and gas-rich springs, (4) oil stains in volcanics, carbonates and sandstones, (5) solid macroscopic bitumen and (6) fluid inclusions and other evidence of micro-seepage. The inventory comprises detailed information on localities, coordinates and sample numbers. It also includes descriptions of features and geology, references to data, reports and publications. All information is summarised in either a mineral or petroleum systems context. Petroleum seeps and stains have been reported from most Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins in Greenland where they add important information on petroleum systems, especially distribution and facies variation of source rocks, petroleum generation and later migration, accumulation, remigration, uplift and degradation. The inventory is designed to be updated with additional localities and descriptions and new organic geochemical data. This paper provides a general overview of classification, nomenclature, organisation and content of the inventory. We introduce the regional distribution of petroleum seeps and stains in Greenland and general interpretations in the context of mineral and petroleum systems.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abrams, M.A. 2005: Significance of hydrocarbon seepage relative to petroleum generation and entrapment. Marine and Petroleum Geology 22, 457–477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2004.08.003

Alexandre, P. & Kyser, K.T. 2006: Geochemistry of uraniferous bitumen in the Southwest Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada. Economic Geology 101, 1605–1610. https://doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.101.8.1605

Andrews, S.D., Decou, A., Braham, B., Kelly, S.R.A., Robinson, P., Morton, A., Marshall, J.E.A. & Hyden, F. 2020a: Exhumed hydrocarbon traps on the North Atlantic Margin: Stratigraphy, palaeontology, provenance and bitumen distribution, an integrated approach. Basin Research 32(5), 1223–1243. https://doi.org/10.1111/BRE.12424

Andrews, S.D., Decou, A., Braham, B., Kelly, S.R.A., Robinson, P., Morton, A., Marshall, J.E.A. & Hyden, F. 2020b: Exhumed hydrocarbon traps in East Greenland: Reply to Christensen et al.’s comment on Andrews et al. (2020). Basin Research 32(5), 1249–1251. https://doi.org/10.1111/bre.12467

Bennike, O. 1998: Pingoer. Tidsskriftet Grønland 1998, 62–68 (in Danish).

Bernstein, S. & Knudsen, C. 2004: Epithermal gold and massive sulphide mineralization in oil impregnated Palaeogene volcanic rocks of Ubekendt Ejland, West Greenland. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 4, 77–80. https://doi.org/10.34194/geusb.v4.4790

Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A. 2011: West Greenland petroleum systems. An overview of source rocks and oil seePages and their implications for offshore petroleum exploration. Danmarks og Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse Rapport 2011/42, 49 pp.

Bojesen-Koefoed, J., Christiansen, F. G., Pedersen, H. I., Piasecki, S. & Stemmerik, L. 1996: Resinite-rich coals of Northeast Greenland - a hitherto unrecognized, highly oil-prone Jurassic source rock. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology 44(3), 458–473. https://doi.org/10.35767/gscpgbull.44.3.458

Bojesen-Koefoed, J. A., Christiansen, F.G., Nytoft, H.P. & Pedersen, A.K. 1997: Seep data from onshore West Greenland. Danmarks og Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse Rapport 1997/34, 7 pp., 7 figs, 8 tables.

Bojesen-Koefoed, J., Christiansen, F.G., Nytoft, H.P. & Pedersen, A.K. 1999: Oil seepage onshore West Greenland: evidence of multiple source rocks and oil mixing. Geological Society, London, Petroleum Geology Conference Series 5, 305–314. https://doi.org/10.1144/0050305

Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A., Nytoft, H.P. & Christiansen, F.G. 2004: Age of oils in West Greenland: was there a Mesozoic seaway between Greenland and Canada. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 4, 49–52. https://doi.org/10.34194/geusb.v4.4783

Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A., Nytoft, H.P. Christiansen, F.G. 2006: Oliefundene i Nuussuaqbassinet. In: Bruun, L. et al. (eds.): Arktisk Station 1906-2006. 250–255. Copenhagen: Forlaget Rhodos. (In Danish)

Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A., Bidstrup, T., Christiansen, F.G., Dalhoff, F., Nytoft, H.P., Nøhr-Hansen, H., Pedersen, A.K. & Sønderholm, M. 2007: Petroleum seePages at Asuk, Disko, West Greenland: implications for regional petroleum exploration. Journal of Petroleum Geology 30(3), 219–236. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-5457.2007.00219.x

Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A., Alsen, P., Christiansen, F.G., Nytoft, H.P., Piasecki, S. & Stemmerik, L. 2009: Northeast Greenland petroleum systems. Danmarks og Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse Rapport 2009/43, 342pp.

Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A., Alsen, P. & Christiansen, F.G. 2014: Six years of petroleum geological activities in North-East Greenland (2088–2013). Projects and view of the future. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 31, 59–62. https://doi.org/10.34194/geusb.v31.4661

Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A., Bjerager, M., Nytoft, H.P., Petersen, H.I., Piasecki, S. & Pilgaard, A. 2018: Petroleum potential of the Upper Jurassic Hareelv Formation, Jameson Land, East Greenland. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 42, 85–113. https://doi.org/10.34194/geusb.v42.4314

Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A., Alsen, P., Bjerager, M., Hovikoski, J., Ineson, J., Nytoft, H.P., Nøhr-Hansen, H., Petersen, H.I., Pilgaard, A. & Vosgerau, H. 2020: A mid-Cretaceous petroleum source-rock in the North Atlantic region? Implications of the Nanok-1 fully cored borehole, Hold with Hope, northeast Greenland. Marine and Petroleum Geology 117, 104414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2020.104414

Burrato, P., Etiope, G., Vannoli, P., Ionescu, A. & Martinelli, G. 2013: HYSED-IT: A database of hydrocarbon seeps in Italy. Results from MIUR/PRIN2009 project Hydrocarbon emissions from geological sources to the atmosphere in Italy. http://hydrocarbonseeps.blogspot.it/p/hysed.html (accessed July 2021)

Christiansen, F.G. (ed.). 1988: Petroleum Geology of North Greenland Final Report – ‘Nordolie’ (EFP 83-2251-305), Appendix II: Key data. 110 pp. Copenhagen: Geological Survey of Greenland.

Christiansen, F.G. (ed.). 1989: Petroleum geology of North Greenland. Bulletin Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 158, 92 pp.

Christiansen, F.G. 1993: Disko Bugt Project 1992, West Greenland. Rapport Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 159, 47–52. https://doi.org/10.34194/rapggu.v159.8207

Christiansen, F.G. 1994: Seeps and other bitumen showings: A review of origin, nomenclature and occurrences in Greenland. Open File Series Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 94(7), 21 pp.

Christiansen, F.G. 2011: Chapter 42 Greenland petroleum exploration: History, breakthroughs in understanding and future challenges. In: Spencer, A. et al. (eds): Arctic Petroleum Geology. Memoir 35, 647–661. London: Geological Society. https://doi.org/10.1144/M35.42

Christiansen, F.G. & Boserup, J. 1990: Analytical key data for assessment of the petroleum potential of the northern part of the East Greenland basin. Unpublished report for the Geological Survey of Greenland, 80 pp.

Christiansen, F.G. & Nøhr-Hansen, H. 1989: The Silurian shales of central and western North Greenland: evaluation of hydrocarbon source rock potential. Rapport Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 143, 47–71. https://doi.org/10.34194/rapggu.v143.8057

Christiansen, F.G. & Rolle, F. 1985: Project ‘Nordolie’: hydrocarbon source rock investigations in central North Greenland. Rapport Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 125, 17–21. https://doi.org/10.34194/rapggu.v125.7882

Christiansen, F.G. & Stemmerik, L. 1989: Shallow core drilling of Upper Permian and Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic potential reservoir rocks in central East Greenland. Rapport Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 145, 79–84. https://doi.org/10.34194/rapggu.v145.8081

Christiansen, F.G., Nykjær, O. & Nøhr-Hansen, H. 1986: Source rock investigations and shallow core drilling in central and western North Greenland – Project ‘Nordolie’. Rapport Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 130, 17–23. https://doi.org/10.34194/rapggu.v130.7936

Christiansen, F.G., Nøhr-Hansen, H. & Nykjær, O. 1987: The Cambrian Henson Gletscher Formation: A mature to postmature hydrocarbon source rock sequence from North Greenland. Rapport Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 133, 141–157. https://doi.org/10.34194/rapggu.v133.7984

Christiansen, F.G., Koch, C.J.W., Nøhr-Hansen, H., Stouge, S., Thomsen, E. & Østfeldt, P. 1989a: Chapter 6: Thermal maturity. In: Christiansen, F.G. (ed.): Petroleum Geology of North Greenland. Bulletin Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 158, 40–60. https://doi.org/10.34194/bullggu.v158.6705

Christiansen, F.G., Buchardt, B., Jensenius, J., Jepsen, H.F., Nøhr-Hansen, H. & Østfeldt, P. 1989b: Chapter 7: Bitumen occurrences. In: Christiansen, F. G. (ed.): Petroleum Geology of North Greenland. Bulletin Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 158, 61–72. https://doi.org/10.34194/bullggu.v158.6706

Christiansen, F.G., Olsen, H., Piasecki, S. & Stemmerik, L. 1990a: Organic geochemistry of Late Palaeozoic lacustrine shales in East Greenland. Organic Geochemistry 16(1–3), 287–294. https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6380(90)90048-5

Christiansen, F.G., Piasecki, S. & Stemmerik, L. 1990b: Thermal maturation history of the Upper Permian succession in the Wegener Halvø area, East Greenland. Rapport Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 148, 109–114. https://doi.org/10.34194/rapggu.v148.8129

Christiansen, F.G., Bojesen-Koefoed, J., Jensen, S.M. & Stemmerik, L. 1991: Oil seep in basement, Germania Land, North-East Greenland. Open File Series Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 91/7, 29 pp.

Christiansen, F.G., Dam, G., Piasecki, S. & Stemmerik, L. 1992: A review of Upper Palaeozoic and Mesozoic source rocks from onshore East Greenland. In: Spencer, A. M. (ed.) Generation, accummulation and production of Europe’s hydrocarbons. Special Publication of the European Association of Petroleum Geoscience 2, 151–162, Heidelberg: Springer.

Christiansen, F.G., Dam, G. & Pedersen, A.K. 1994a: Discovery of live oil at Marraat, Nuussuaq, West Greenland - field work, drilling and logging. Rapport Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 160, 57–63. https://doi.org/10.34194/rapggu.v160.8232

Christiansen, F.G., Bojesen-Koefoed, J. & Nytoft, H. P. 1994b: Organic geochemistry of oil impregnated cores from the Marraat-1 well, Nuussuaq, West Greenland - comparison with surface samples. Open File Series Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 94/8, 26 pp.

Christiansen, F.G., Dam, G., Larsen, L.M., Nøhr-Hansen, H., Pedersen, A.K., Boserup, J., Bojesen-Koefoed, J., Laier, T. & Pulvertaft, T.C.R. 1995: Stratigraphy, sedimentology and geochemistry of cores and other samples from the GANW#1 well, Nuussuaq, West Greenland, 52 pp. Report prepared for grønArctic Energy Inc., Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Christiansen, F.G., Bojesen-Koefoed, J., Nytoft, H.P. & Laier, T. 1996a: Organic geochemistry of sediments, oils, and gases in the GANE#1, GANT#1, and GANK#1 wells, Nuussuaq, West Greenland. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Report 1996(23), 35 pp.

Christiansen, F.G., Bojesen-Koefoed, J., Dam, G., Nytoft, H.P., Pedersen, A.K., Larsen, L.M. & Pulvertaft, T.C.R. 1996b: The Marraat oil discovery on Nuussuaq, West Greenland: Evidence for a latest Cretaceous – Earliest Tertiary oil source rock in the Labrador Sea – Melville Bay region. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology 44(1), 39–54. https://doi.org/10.35767/gscpgbull.44.1.039

Christiansen, F.G., Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A., Dam, G., Laier, T. & Salehi, S. 2020a: A review of oil and gas seepage in the Nuussuaq Basin, West Greenland – Implications for petroleum exploration. GEUS Bulletin 44, 4567. https://doi.org/10.34194/geusb.v44.4567

Christiansen, F.G., Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A., Piasecki, S., Stemmerik, L. & Therkelsen, J. 2020b: Exhumed Hydrocarbon Traps in East Greenland: A comment on Andrews et al. (2019). Basin Research 32(5), 1244–1248. https://doi.org/10.1111/bre.12463

Cox, D.R., Huuse, M., Newton, A.M.W., Sarkar, A.D. & Knutz, P.C. 2021: Shallow gas and gas hydrate occurrences on the Northwest Greenland. Marine Geology 432, 106382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2020.106382

Dalhoff, F., Larsen, L.M., Ineson, J.R., Stouge, S., Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A., Lassen, S., Kuijpers, A., Rasmussen, J.A. & Nøhr-Hansen, H. 2006: Continental crust in the Davis Strait: New evidence from seabed sampling. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 10, 33–36. https://doi.org/10.34194/geusb.v10.4901

Dam, G. & Christiansen, F.G. 1990: Organic geochemistry and source potential of the lacustrine shales of the Late Triassic – Early Jurassic Kap Stewart Formation, East Greenland. Marine and Petroleum Geology 7, 428–443. https://doi.org/10.1016/0264-8172(90)90019-D

Dam, G., Nøhr-Hansen, H., Christiansen, F.G., Bojesen-Koefoed, J. & Laier, T. 1998: The oldest marine Cretaceous sediments in West Greenland (Umiivik-1, Svartenhuk Halvø) – Record of the Cenomanian–Turonian anoxic event? Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin 180, 128–137. https://doi.org/10.34194/ggub.v180.5096

Dam, G., Pedersen, G.K., Sønderholm, M., Midtgaard, H., Larsen, L.M., Nøhr-Hansen, H. & Pedersen, A.K. 2009: Lithostratigraphy of the Cretaceous-Paleocene Nuussuaq Group, Nuussuaq Basin, West Greenland. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 19, 171 pp. https://doi.org/10.34194/geusb.v19.4886

Dawes, P.R.et al . 2000: Kane Basin 1999: Mapping, stratigraphic studies and economic assessment of Precambrian and Lower Palaeozoic provinces in north-western Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin 186, 11–28. https://doi.org/10.34194/ggub.v186.5211

Fyhn, M.B.W. et al. 2021: Central- and North-East Greenland Rifted Margin Composite Tectono-Sedimentary Element, From Onshore East Greenland to the Greenland Sea. In: Drachev, S. & Moore, T. (eds): Arctic Petroleum Basins. Memoir 57, M57–2017–15. London: Geological Society. https://doi.org/10.1144/M57-2017-15

Gregersen, U., Bidstrup, T., Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A., Christiansen, F.G., Dalhoff, F. & Sønderholm, M. 2007: Petroleum systems and structures offshore central West Greenland: Implications for hydrocarbon prospectivity. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 13, 25–28. https://doi.org/10.34194/geusb.v13.4968

Gregg, J.M. 2004: Basin fluid flow, base metal sulfide mineralization, and the development of dolomite petroleum reservoirs. In: Braithwaite, C.J.R. et al. (eds): The geometry and petrogenesis of dolomite hydrocarbon reservoirs. Special Publications 235, 157–175. London: Geological Society. https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2004.235.01.07

Gregg, J.M. & Shelton, K.L. 2012: Mississipi Valley-type mineralization and ore deposits in the Cambrian-Ordovician Great American Carbonate Bank. In: Derby, J.R. et al. (eds): The great American carbonate bank: The geology and economic resources of the Cambrian-Ordovician Sauk megasequence of Laurentia. 163–186. Boulder: American Association of Petroleum Geologists. https://doi.org/10.1306/13331493M981487

Gussow, W.C. 1954: Differential entrapment of oil and gas: A fundamental principle: AAPG Bulletin 38, 816–853. https://doi.org/10.1306/5ceadf11-16bb-11d7-8645000102c1865d

Harpøth, O., Pedersen, J.L., Schønwandt, H.K. & Thomassen, B. 1986: The mineral occurrences of central East Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Geoscience 17, 137 pp.

Henderson, G. 1969: Oil and gas prospects in the Cretaceous-Tertiary basin of West Greenland. Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse Rapport 22, 63 pp. https://doi.org/10.34194/rapggu.v22.7214

Henderson, G. 1976: Petroleum geology. In: Escher, A. & Watt, W.S. (eds): Geology of Greenland. 488–505. Copenhagen: Geological Survey of Greenland.

Hopper, J.R. & Ineson, J. in press: The Franklinian Composite Tectono-Sedimentary Element, North Greenland. In: Drachev, S., Henriksen, E., Moore, T. & Harald, B. (eds): Arctic Sedimentary Basins. Memoir 57. London: Geological Society.

Hunt, J.M. 1979: Petroleum geochemistry and geology, 615 pp. San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman and Co.

Ionescu, A., Burrato, P., Baciu, C., Etiope, G. & Boglarka-Mercedesz, K. 2017: Inventory of Onshore Hydrocarbon Seeps in Romania (HYSED-RO Database). Geosciences 7(2), 39. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences7020039

Jakobsen, U.H. & Omoto, H. 1993: Bitumen associated with precipitation of sulphides in a carbonate-hosted vein mineralization, North Greenland. In: Parnell, N.J. et al. (eds.): Bitumens in ore deposits. 399–414. Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-85806-2_21

Jakobsen, U.H. & Steenfelt, A. 1985: Zinc mineralization at Navarana Fjord, central North Greenland. Rapport Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 126, 105–109. https://doi.org/10.34194/rapggu.v126.7916

Jensen, S.M. 1998: Carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization in Washington Land, western North Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin 180, 67–72. https://doi.org/10.34194/ggub.v180.5088

Jonk, R., Parnell, J. & Whitham, A. 2005: Fluid inclusion evidence for a Cretaceous-Palaeogene petroleum system, Kangerlussuaq Basin, East Greenland. Marine and Petroleum Geology 22(3), 319–330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2005.01.002

Karlsen, D.A., Leythaeuser, D. & Schaefer, R.G. 1988: Light hydrocarbon redistribution in a shallow core from the Ravnefjeld formation on the Wegener Halvø, East Greenland. In: Matavelli, L. & Novelli, L. (eds): Advances in Organic Geochemistry 1987, Oxford: Pergamon Press (also published as Organic Geochemistry 13, parts 1–3). Organic Geochemistry In Petroleum exploration. 393–398. Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6380(88(90061-7

Konnerup-Madsen, J., Larsen, E. & Rose-Hansen, J. 1979: Hydrocarbon-rich fluid inclusions in minerals from the alkaline Ilímaussaq intrusion, South Greenland. Bulletin de Minéralogie 102(5), 642–653. https://doi.org/10.3406/bulmi.1979.7313

Krabbe, H., Christiansen, F.G., Dam, G., Piasecki, S. & Stemmerik, L. 1994: Organic geochemistry of the Lower Jurassic Sortehat Member, Jameson Land. Rapport Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 164, 5–18. https://doi.org/10.34194/rapggu.v164.8266

Kus, J. & Pletsch, T. 2012: Thermal maturity of Lower Palaeozoic sediments in western North Greenland. GeoHannover 2012, Hannover, Germany, 1–3 October. 538.

Laier, T. & Nytoft, H.P. 2012a: Bitumen biomarkers in the mid-Proterozoic Ilímaussaq intrusion, Southwest Greenland – A challenge to the mantle gas theory. Marine and Petroleum Geology 30, 50–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2011.11.008

Laier, T. & Nytoft, H.P. 2012b: New evidence for possible generation of oil off south-western Greenland. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 26, 65–68. https://doi.org/10.34194/geusb.v26.4756

Landais, P. 1993: Bitumens in uranium deposits. In: Parnell, N.J. et al. (eds): Bitumens in ore deposits. 213–238. Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-85806-2_13

Landais, P. 1996: Organic geochemistry of sedimentary uranium ore deposits. Ore Geology Reviews 11(1–3), 33–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-1368(95)00014-3

Larsen, L.M., Heaman, L.M., Creaser, R.A., Duncan, R.A., Frei, R., Hutchinson, M. 2009: Tectonomagmatic events during stretching and basin formation in the Labrador Sea and the Davis Strait: Evidence from age and composition of Mesozoic to Palaeogene dyke swarms in West Greenland. Journal of the Geological Society, London 166, 999–1012. https://doi.org/10.1144/0016-76492009-038

Link, W.K. 1952: Significance of oil and gas seeps in World exploration. AAPG Bulletin 36, 1505–1540. https://doi.org/10.1306/5ceadb3f-16bb-11d7-8645000102c1865d

Macgregor, D.S. 1993: Relationships between seepage, tectonics and subsurface reserves. Marine and Petroleum Geology 10, 606–619. https://doi.org/10.1016/0264-8172(93)90063-X

Marcussen, C., Christiansen, F.G., Larsen, P.H., Olsen, H., Piasecki, S., Stemmerik, L., Bojesen-Koefoed, J., Jepsen, H.F. & Nøhr-Hansen, H. 1987: Studies on the onshore hydrocarbon potential in East Greenland 1986–87: Field work from 72˚ to 74˚N. Rapport Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 135, 72–81. https://doi.org/10.34194/rapggu.v135.8002

Mikkelsen, A. 1993: Grønlands ’lovende oliefund’. Tidsskriftet Grønland 1993(7), 307–311. (In Danish)

Palabiyik, Y. & Ozdemir, A., 2019: Oil and gas seeps in Turkey: A review. 7th International Symposium on Academic Studies in Science, Engineering and Architecture Sciences, Ankara, Turkey, 15–17 November 2019, 726–740.

Paradis, S., Hannigan, P. & Dewing, K. 2007: Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits. In: Goodfellow, W.D. (ed): Mineral deposits of Canada: A synthesis of major deposits-types, district metallogeny, the evolution of geological provinces, and exploration methods. Special Publication 5, 185–203. Geological Association of Canada, Mineral Deposits Division. St. John’s, Newfoundland

Parnell, J. 1988: Metal enrichment in solid bitumens: A review. Mineralium Deposita 23, 191–199. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00204301

Pedersen, A.K. 1986: Indication of migrated hydrocarbons in Tertiary volcanic rocks from western Nûgssuaq, Rapport Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 130, 32–35. https://doi.org/10.34194/rapggu.v130.7938

Pedersen, A.K., Larsen, L.M., Pedersen, G.K. & Dueholm, K.S. 2008: Geological map of the area around Sikillingi, western Nuussuaq, central West Greenland, 1:20 000. Copenhagen: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland.

Pedersen, A.K., Larsen, L.M. & Pedersen, G.K. 2017: Lithostratigraphy, geology and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks of the Vaigat Formation on Disko and Nuussuaq, Paleocene of West Greenland. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 39, 244 pp. https://doi.org/10.34194/geusb.v39.4354

Pedersen, G.K., Andersen, L.A., Lundsteen, E.B., Petersen, H.I., Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A. & Nytoft, H.P. 2006: Depositional environments, organic maturity and petroleum potential of the Cretaceous coal-bearing Atane Formation at Qullissat, Nuussuaq Basin, West Greenland, Journal of Petroleum Geology 29(1), 3–26. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-5457.2006.00003.x

Perregaard, J. & Schiener, E.J. 1979: Thermal alteration of sedimentary organic matter by a basalt intrusive (Kimmeridgian shales, Milne Land, east Greenland). Chemical Geology 26(3–4), 331–343. https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(79)90055-X

Peters, K.E., Walters, C.C. & Moldowan, J.M. 2004: The biomarker guide, 2nd edition, 1155 pp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107326040

Petersen, H.I., Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A. & Nytoft, H.P. 2002: Source rock evaluation of Middle Jurassic coals, northeast Greenland, by artificial maturation: Aspects of petroleum generation from coal. AAPG Bulletin 86, 233–256. https://doi.org/10.1306/61EEDA9E-173E-11D7-8645000102C1865D

Petersen, H.I., Øverland, J.A., Solbakk, T., Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A. & Bjerager, M. 2013: Unusual resinite-rich coals found in northeastern Greenland and along the Norwegian coast: Petrographic and geochemical composition, International Journal of Coal Geology 109–110, 58–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2013.02.001

Petersilie, I.A. & Sørensen, H. 1970: Hydrocarbon gases and bituminous substances in rocks from the Ilímaussaq alkaline intrusion, South Greenland. Lithos 3(1), 59–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(70)90088-5

Piasecki, S. 1987: LECO/Rock-Eval screening analysis of the Upper Paleozoic – Mesozoic sediments of Jameson Land, central East Greenland. Unpublished report for the Geological Survey of Greenland. 72 pp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Piasecki, S., Christiansen, F.G. & Stemmerik, L. 1990: Depositional history and organic geochemistry of Carboniferous lacustrine deposits in East Greenland. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology 38(3), 273–287. https://doi.org/10.35767/gscpgbull.38.3.273

Poulsen, V. 1966: An occurrence of Lower Palaeozoic rocks within the Precambrian terrain near Sukkertoppen. Rapport Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 11, 26. https://doi.org/10.34194/rapggu.v11.7143

Price, S.P. & Whitham, A.G. 1997: Exhumed hydrocarbon traps in East Greenland: Analogs for the Lower-Middle Jurassic Play of North West Europe. AAPG Bulletin 81, 196–221. https://doi.org/10.1306/522b42e9-1727-11d7-8645000102c1865d

Requejo, A.G., Hollywood, J. & Halpern, H.I. 1989: Recognition and source correlation of migrated hydrocarbons in Upper Jurassic Hareelv Formation, Jameson Land, East Greenland. AAPG Bulletin 73, 1065–1088. https://doi.org/10.1306/44B4A53C-170A-11D7-8645000102C1865D

Scholle, P.A., Stemmerik, L. & Ulmer, D.S. 1991: Diagenetic history and hydrocarbon potential of Upper Permian carbonate build-ups, Wegener Halvø area, Jameson Land basin, East Greenland. AAPG Bulletin 75, 701–725. https://doi.org/10.1306/0C9B2835-1710-11D7-8645000102C1865D

Schumacher, D. & Abrams, M.A. (eds.). 1996: Hydrocarbon migration and its near surface expression. 446 pp. Boulder: American Association of Petroleum Geologists. https://doi.org/10.1306/M66606

Secher, K. & Steenfelt, A. 1976: Foreløbig rapport over malmmikroskopisk og mineralogisk undersøgelse af radioaktiv mineraliseringer i Randbøldal, Østgrønland. Unpublished report for the Geological Survey of Greenland, 33 pp + appendices. Copenhagen: Geological Survey of Greenland (In Danish)

Secher, K., Nielsen, B.L. & Steenfelt, A. 1976: Uraniferous hydrocarbons (Carburan) associated with Devonian acid volcanic rocks, Randbøldal, northern East Greenland. Rapport Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 80, 112–115. https://doi.org/10.34194/rapggu.v80.7501

Selley, R.C. 1992: Petroleum seePages and impregnations in Great Britain. Marine and Petroleum Geology 9, 226–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/0264-8172(92)90072-M

Stemmerik, L., Scholle, P.A., Thomas, E., Amondolina, M., Henk, F.M. & Uncini, G. 1989: Facies mapping and reservoir evaluation of the Upper Permian Wegener Halvø Formation in Wegener Halvø, East Greenland. Rapport Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 145, 84–87. https://doi.org/10.34194/rapggu.v145.8082

Stemmerik, L., Christiansen, F.G. & Piasecki, S. 1990: Carboniferous lacustrine shales in East Greenland - an additional source rock in the northern Atlantic? In: Katz, B. (ed.): Lacustrine exploration: case studies and modern analogues. AAPG Memoir 50, 277–286. https://doi.org/10.1306/m50523c17

Stemmerik, L., Sønderholm, M. & Bojesen-Koefoed, J. 1997: Palaeo-oil field in a Silurian carbonate buildup, Wulff Land. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin 176, 24–28. https://doi.org/10.34194/ggub.v176.5056

Sørensen, E.V., Hopper, J.R., Pedersen, G.K., Nøhr-Hansen, H., Guarnieri, P., Pedersen, A.K. & Christiansen, F.G. 2017: Inversion structures as potential petroleum exploration targets on Nuussuaq and northern Disko, onshore West Greenland. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 38, 45–48. https://doi.org/10.34194/geusb.v38.4406

Thomassen, B. 1973: Heavy metal content of the Posidonia Shales on Wegener Halvø. Rapport Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 58, 33–35. https://doi.org/10.34194/rapggu.v58.7361

Thomassen, B., Clemmensen, L.B. & Schønwandt, H.K. 1982: Stratabound copper-lead-zinc mineralisation in the Permo-Triassic of central East Greenland. Bulletin Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse 143, 42 pp. https://doi.org/10.34194/bullggu.v143.6685

Thrane, K. & Kalvig, P. 2019: Graphite potential in Greenland. Geology and Ore 32, 12 pp.

Van der Stijl, F.W. & Mosher, G.Z. 1998: The Citronen Fjord massive sulphide deposit, Peary Land, North Greenland: Discovery, stratigraphy, mineralization and structural setting. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin 179, 40 pp. https://doi.org/10.34194/ggub.v179.6270

Von Guttenberg, R. & van der Stijl, F. 1993: North Greenland Project 1992. Report of Work. Unpublished company report. Nanisivik Mines Ltd., Platinova A/S. 129 pp. Toronto.

Watt, W.S. 2019: Stratigraphic lexicon for Greenland. 327 pp. Copenhagen: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. https://doi.org/10.22008/geusbook/strat-lex-greenland

Watt, W.S. & Wrang, P. 1984: Migrated hydrocarbons in basalt on the south side of Scoresby Sund. Rapport Grønlands geologiske Undersøgelse 120, 84–85. https://doi.org/10.34194/rapggu.v120.7863

Zheng, G., Xua, W., Etiope, G., Ma, X., Liangd, S., Fana, Q., Sajjada, W. & Lia, Y. 2018: Hydrocarbon seeps in petroliferous basins in China: A first inventory. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 151, 269–284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2017.10.037

Published

2021-09-23

How to Cite

Christiansen, F. G., & Bojesen-Koefoed, J. A. (2021). Inventory of onshore petroleum seeps and stains in Greenland: a web-based GIS model. GEUS Bulletin, 47. https://doi.org/10.34194/geusb.v47.6519

Issue

Section

REVIEW ARTICLE

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>