Validation of airborne and satellite altimetry data by Arctic Truck citizen science
Keywords:Satellite Validation, Altimetry, CryoSat-2, Operation IceBridge, Citizen science
The elevation of ice sheets response dynamically to climate change and satellite altimetry is the preferred tool for evaluating the ice sheet-wide changes. In-situ validation are needed to ensure the quality of the observed elevation changes, but the coast is most often the limiting factor for the amount of in-situ data available. As more and more tourists are accessing the ice sheets, citizen science might provide the needed in-situ data in an environmental and cost-efficient way. Here, we investigate opportunistic kinematic-GPS profiles across the Greenland ice sheet, collected the American-Icelandic Expedition on the Greenlandic icecap 2018. First, the collected GPS-data are tested against widely used NASA Operation IceBridge airborne lidar-scannings, and shows good agreement, with an accuracy of 11 cm. The main difference is attributed to changes in the compaction of the snow as encountered while driving, as well as changing tire pressures. The kinematic-GPS data is then used for satellite validation by inter-comparing it with data from ESA's CryoSat-2 mission. Here, a bias in the two records of 89 cm is observed, with the Cryosat-2 observation originating from the subsurface of the ice sheet. This points to surface penetration of Ku-band radar on the Greenland ice sheet, and the observed magnitude is in accordance with the literature. Finally, we assess the long-term durability of citizen science kinematic-GPS data, when compared to a profile obtained in 2005 near Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland. Here, the records show an average ice elevation decreased of 9 meters and with peaks at 25.7 meters. This result show how kinematic-GPS data can be used to see the full impact of climate change by repeat measurements. Thereby are citizen science kinematic-GPS data shown to be a highly versatile approach to acquire high-resolution validation data for satellite altimetry, with the added benefit of potentially direct sampling properties of the surface and firn, when applying traditional airborne platforms. Thereby linking up with citizen-science expeditions is truly a beneficial way of providing cost-efficient satellite validations and may also have a societal impact by involving more in the climate monitoring of ice sheets.
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Copyright (c) 2021 Andreas Stokholm, Sine M. Hvidegaard, Rene Forsberg, Sebastian B. Simonsen
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